New to Apartment Real Estate Investing? Get with the lingo and some frequently asked questions here.
An accredited investor is a person that can invest in securities (i.e. invest in an apartment syndication as a limited partner) by satisfying one of the requirements regarding income or net worth. The current requirements to qualify are an annual income of $200,000 or $300,000 for joint income for the last two years with expectation of earning the same or higher or a net worth exceeding $1 million either individually or jointly with a spouse.
The acquisition fee is the upfront fee paid by the new buying partnership entity to the general partner for finding, analyzing, evaluating, financing and closing the investment. Fees range from 0.5% to 5% of the purchase price, depending on the size of the deal.
An apartment syndication is a temporary professional financial services alliance formed for the purpose of handling a large apartment transaction that would be hard or impossible for the entities involved to handle individually, which allows companies to pool their resources and share risks and returns. In regards to apartments, a syndication is typically a partnership between general partners (i.e. the syndicator) and the limited partners (i.e. the investors) to acquire, manage and sell an apartment community while sharing in the profits.
Appreciation is an increase in the value of an asset over time. There are two main types of appreciation: natural and forced. Natural appreciation occurs when the market cap rate “naturally” decreases. Forced appreciation occurs when the net operating income is increased (either by increasing the revenue or decreasing the expenses).
The asset management fee is an ongoing annual fee from the property operations paid to the general partner for property oversight. Generally, the fee is 2% of the collected income or $250 per unit per year.
Bad debt is the amount of uncollected money a former tenant owes after move-out.
Breakeven occupancy is the occupancy rate required to cover the all of the expenses of an apartment community. The breakeven occupancy rate is calculated by dividing the sum of the operating expenses and debt service by the gross potential income.
A bridge loan is a mortgage loan used until a person or company secures permanent financing, which are short-term (6 months to three years with the option to purchase an additional 6 months to two years). They generally have a higher interest rate and are almost exclusively interest-only. Also referred to as interim financing, gap financing or swing loan. The loan is ideal for repositioning an apartment community.
Capital expenditures, typically referred to as CapEx, are the funds used by a company to acquire, upgrade and maintain an apartment community. An expense is considered to be a capital expenditure when it improves the useful life of an apartment and is capitalized – spreading the cost of the expenditure over the useful life of the asset.
Capital expenditures include both interior and exterior renovations.
Examples of exterior CapEx are repairing or replacing a parking lot, repairing or replacing a roof, repairing, replacing or installing balconies or patios, installing carports, large landscaping projects, rebranding the community, new paint, new siding, repairing or replacing HVAC and renovating a clubhouse.
Examples of interior CapEx are new cabinetry, new countertops, new appliances, new flooring, installing fireplaces, opening up or enclosing a kitchen, new light fixtures, interior paint, plumbing projects, new blinds and new hardware (i.e. door knobs, cabinet handles, outlet covers, faucets, etc.).
Examples of things that wouldn’t be considered CapEx are operating expenses, like the costs associated with turning over a unit (i.e. paint, new carpet, cleaning, etc.), ongoing maintenance and repairs, ongoing landscaping costs, payroll to employees, utility expenses, etc.
Capitalization rate, typically referred to as cap rate, is the rate of return based on the income that the property is expected to generate. The cap rate is calculated by dividing the property’s net operating income (NOI) by the current market value or acquisition cost of a property (cap rate = NOI / Current market value)
The limited partner (LP) is a partner whose liability is limited to the extent of the partner’s share of ownership. In apartment syndications, the LP is the passive investor and funds a portion of the equity investment.
Loss to lease (LtL) is the revenue lost based on the market rent and the actual rent. LtL is calculated by dividing the gross potential rent minus the actual rent collected by the gross potential rent.
The market rent is the rent amount a willing landlord might reasonably expect to receive, and a willing tenant might reasonably expect to pay for a tenancy, which is based on the rent charged at similar apartment communities in the area. Market rent is typical calculated by performing a rent comparable analysis.
A metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region containing a substantial population nucleus, together with adjacent communities having a high degree of economic and social integration with that core, which are determined by the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB).
A model unit is a representative apartment unit used as a sales tool to show prospective tenants how the actual unit will appear once occupied.
Net operating income (NOI) is all revenue from the property minus operating expenses, excluding capital expenditures and debt service.
The operating account funding is a reserves fund, over and above the price of the property, to cover things like unexpected dips in occupancy, lump sum insurance or tax payments or higher than expected capital expenditures. The operating account fund is typically created by raising extra money from the limited partners.
Operating expenses are the costs of running and maintaining the property and its grounds.
A permanent agency loan is a long-term mortgage loan secured from Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac and is longer-term with lower interest rates compared to bridge loans. Typical loan term lengths are 5, 7 or 10 years amortized over 20 to 30 years.
The physical occupancy rate is the rate of occupied units. The physical occupancy rate is calculated by dividing the total number of occupied units by the total number of units.
Some frequently asked questions about Apartment Real Estate investing. Don’t see your question here? Please reach out to us.